Other News and Resources


Indoor residual spraying with microencapsulated DEET repellent (N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide) for control of Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus

Conclusion: Microencapsulated DEET acts like an insecticide at ambient temperature and induces mosquito mortality when applied to walls made from wooden panels. This trial demonstrated the potential of microencapsulated DEET to control An. arabiensis and warrants further studies of residual activity on interior substrates. 

Download the full article in Parasites & Vectors article here.


The Mode of Action of Spatial Repellents and Their Impact on Vectorial Capacity of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

This study provides critical information necessary for the development of target product profiles of spatial repellent products that can be used to complement existing mainstream malaria vector control tools. 

View/download the article form PLoS ONE here.


Report - Malaria: the last mile

Malaria Consortium, in partnership with the New Statesman, held a malaria roundtable at the UK Parliament last December, the day after the launch of the World Malaria Report 2014.

The roundtable was focused on drug resistant malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion and was attended by a number of UK parliamentarians and notable experts in the field.

The eight page report from this roundtable has been published this week in the New Statesman magazine.

Full story can be found here.


PowerPoint: Malaria and Population Mobility: Towards a ‘3D’ solution (JITMM, Dec 2014)

A PowerPoint presentation by Prof Maxine Whittaker and Dr Catherine Smith entitled, 'Malaria and Population Mobility:Towards a ‘3D’ solution' is now available.

Prof Whittaker presented at the Joint International Tropical Medicine Meeting in Bangkok, Thailand on December 4, 2014, on two papers she co-authored with Dr Smith accpeted in Malaria Journal:

1) Beyond Mobile Populations: A critical review of the literature on malaria and population mobility and suggestions for future directions (Malaria Journal 13:307)
2) Malaria Elimination without Stigmatization: a note of caution on the use of language in elimination settings. (Malaria Journal 13:377)

Risk Factors for Border Malaria in a Malaria Elimination Setting: A Retrospective Case-Control Study in Yunnan, China

A retrospective case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for border malaria in a malaria elimination setting of Yunnan Province, China. The study comprised 214 cases and 428 controls. The controls were individually matched to the cases on the basis of residence, age, and gender. In conclusion, travel to lowland and foothill or mid-hill hyperendemic areas, especially along the waterside in Myanmar, was found to be the highest risk factor for malaria. In considering the limitations of the study, further investigations are needed to identify the major determinants of malaria risk and develop new strategies for malaria elimination on China-Myanmar border.

View/download the free abstract from The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene here.


Costs of Eliminating Malaria and the Impact of the Global Fund in 34 Countries

Conclusions: Although external donor funding, particularly from the Global Fund, has been key for many malaria-eliminating countries, sustained and sufficient financing is critical for furthering global malaria elimination. Projected cost estimates for elimination provide policymakers with an indication of the level of financial resources that should be mobilized to achieve malaria elimination goals.

View/download the PLOS ONE article here.


PPoint: Sir Richard Feachem speaks at ANU

On 25 November 2013, Sir Richard Feachem gave a public seminar to Australia National University (ANU) Crawford School of Public Policy in Canberra, Australia.

In his talk, Sir Richard presented the historical progress with malaria elimination and the prospects and requirements for global eradication by 2050. He focused particularly on recent dramatic progress in Asia Pacific and the Asia Pacific goal of malaria freedom by 2030.

To view/download his PowerPoint presentation, click here. (PDF, 4,422KB)



Fun with maths: exploring implications of mathematical models for malaria eradication

Abstract: Mathematical analyses and modelling have an important role informing malaria eradication strategies. Simple mathematical approaches can answer many questions, but it is important to investigate their assumptions and to test whether simple assumptions affect the results. In this note, four examples demonstrate both the effects of model structures and assumptions and also the benefits of using a diversity of model approaches. These examples include the time to eradication, the impact of vaccine efficacy and coverage, drug programs and the effects of duration of infections and delays to treatment, and the influence of seasonality and migration coupling on disease fadeout. An excessively simple structure can miss key results, but simple mathematical approaches can still achieve key results for eradication strategy and define areas for investigation by more complex models.

View/download this Malaria Journal article here.


Radio NZ: Malaria rates dropping in Pacific - WHO

(Originally aired on Dateline Pacific, Monday 15 December 2014)

The World Health Organisation says countries of the Western Pacific region are making good progress towards reducing malaria by 75 per cent in 2015 compared to levels of the disease seen in the year 2000.

Read the full transcript and listen to the audio here: http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/programmes/datelinepacific/audio/20160922/malaria-rates-dropping-in-pacific-who



Prof Whittaker on Radio Australia: Malaria funding falls impact Pacific

There are fears that falling funding for malaria control could hurt Pacific countries' ability to eliminate the disease in coming years. 

A new report from the World Health Organization has found that there've been signficant improvements in reducing the number of malaria cases throughout the Western Pacific in recent years, largely thanks to increased financial assistance. But the 2014 Malaria Report also found that after funding increased in the years from 2005 to 2010, it's once again dropped. 

(Credit: ABC)

Prof Maxine Whittaker is the co-oordinator of the APMEN secretariat, and was interviewed by ABC Radio Australia about the decrease in funding for malaria control. Listen to the clip here.


Modelling the contribution of the hypnozoite reservoir to Plasmodium vivax transmission

Conclusions: Plasmodium vivax relapse infections occur following activation of latent liver-stages parasites (hypnozoites) causing new blood-stage infections weeks to months after the initial infection. We develop a within-host mathematical model of liver-stage hypnozoites, and validate it against data from tropical strains of P. vivax. The hypnozoite reservoir is predicted to be over-dispersed with many individuals having few or no hypnozoites, and some having intensely infected livers. Individuals with more hypnozoites are predicted to experience more relapses and contribute more to onwards P. vivax transmission. Incorporating hypnozoite killing drugs such as primaquine into first-line treatment regimens is predicted to cause substantial reductions in P. vivax transmission as individuals with the most hypnozoites are more likely to relapse and be targeted for treatment.

View/download the eLife journal article here.


Operational research on malaria control and elimination: a review of projects published between 2008 and 2013

Conclusions: A literature review for operational research on malaria control and elimination was conducted using the term 'malaria' and the definition of operational research (OR). A total of 15 886 articles related to malaria were searched between January 2008 and June 2013. These OR projects had been carried out in 83 different countries. Most OR studies (77%) were implemented in Africa south of the Sahara. Only 5 (1%) of the OR studies were implemented in countries in the pre-elimination or elimination phase. With regards to the topic under investigation, the largest percentage of papers was related to vector control (25%), followed by epidemiology/transmission (16.5%) and treatment (16.3%). Only 19 (3.8%) of the OR projects were related to malaria surveillance. Strengthening the capacity of NMCPs to conduct operational research and publish its findings, and improving linkages between NMCPs and research institutes may aid progress towards malaria elimination and eventual eradication world-wide.

View/download the Malaria Journal paper here.


Artemisinin resistance – modelling the potential human and economic costs

Conclusion: Artemisinin combination therapy is recommended as first-line treatment for falciparum malaria across the endemic world and is increasingly relied upon for treating vivax malaria where chloroquine is failing. This paper estimates "ball park" figures for the magnitude of the health and economic threat posed by artemisinin resistance add weight to the call for urgent action to detect the emergence of resistance as early as possible and contain its spread from known locations in the Mekong region to elsewhere in the endemic world.

Determinants of the use of insecticide-treated bed nets on islands of pre- and post-malaria elimination: an application of the health belief model in Vanuatu

Conclusion: The results on Ambae highlight the challenges of motivating communities to engage in
elimination efforts when transmission continues to occur, while the results from Aneityum
suggest the possibility of continued compliance to malaria elimination efforts given the threat
of resurgence. Where a high degree of community engagement is possible, malaria
elimination programmes may prove successful. 

Culminating anti-malaria efforts at long lasting insecticidal net?

Conclusions: Specific criteria for determining the serviceable life and guidelines on the safe washing and disposal of LLINs need to be developed, kept well-informed and closely monitored. Malaria case management, environment management and community awareness to reduce the misuse of LLINs are crucial. Focused research on developing effective anti-malarial drugs, vaccines and new insecticides to reduce resistance is imperative to tackle malaria in the future.

View/Download the Journal of Infection and Public Health here.


Changing epidemiology of malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: increasing incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi

Conclusions: Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi in Sabah are increasing, with this trend likely reflecting a true increase in incidence of P. knowlesi and presenting a major threat to malaria control and elimination in Malaysia.With the decline of P. falciparum and P. vivax, control programmes need to incorporate measures to protect againstP. knowlesi, with further research required to determine effective interventions.

View/download the Malaria Journal pdf here (3,404KB)



Fighting the good fight: the role of militaries in malaria elimination in Southeast Asia

Intro: Despite significant progress in malaria control in the Greater Mekong Subregion, malaria is still endemic, with more than 30 million people infected annually. Important gaps remain in case management, service delivery, prevention, and vector control, particularly in hard-to-reach mobile populations. Rapidly evolving drug resistance has created a new urgency to move aggressively toward malaria elimination. However, no clear and cost-effective strategy has been identified. Although GMS militaries are under-recognized as a malaria transmission reservoir, they are an important focal point for elimination activities, given their high mobility, frequent malaria exposure, and potential for asymptomatic carriage. At the same time, military organization capacity and proximity to other mobile populations could facilitate elimination efforts if relevant political barrier could be overcome. Here, we review considerations for military involvement in regional malaria elimination efforts.

Read the abstract online in Trends in Parasitology here 


The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2004-2012: from intensified control to elimination

This study demonstrated that malaria has decreased dramatically in the last five years, especially since the Chinese government launched a malaria elimination programme in 2010, and areas with reported falciparum malaria cases have expanded over recent years. These findings suggest that elimination efforts should be improved to meet these changes, so as to achieve the nationwide malaria elimination goal in China in 2020.

Read the Malaria Journal article here.


Novel approaches to risk stratification to support malaria elimination: an example from Cambodia  

Accurate malaria stratification is essential for effective targeting of interventions but represents a particular challenge in pre-elimination settings. In these settings transmission is typically sufficiently low and spatially heterogeneous to warrant a need for estimates of malaria risk at sub-district or village level but is also likely to be sufficiently high to render the type of decision support systems appropriate to the final stages of malaria elimination impractical. In such a scenario it is arguably more feasible to strengthen existing passive malaria surveillance systems so that routinely generated case data can provide an effective basis for stratifying malaria risk. This paper explores the utility of routine malaria surveillance data for the stratification of malaria risk in Cambodia, where the target is malaria elimination by 2025. 

Read the full text in Malaria Journal online here.


Spatial and temporal epidemiology of clinical malaria in Cambodia 2004-2013

Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has recently been identified on the Thailand-Cambodia border and more recently in parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. There is concern that if this resistance were to spread, it would severely hamper malaria control and elimination efforts worldwide. Efforts are currently underway to intensify malaria control activities and ultimately eliminate malaria from Cambodia. To support these efforts, it is crucial to have a detailed picture of disease burden and its major determinants over time.

Read the full abstract online in Malaria Journal here. 

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