Other News and Resources

Thursday
Oct022014

Novel approaches to risk stratification to support malaria elimination: an example from Cambodia  

Accurate malaria stratification is essential for effective targeting of interventions but represents a particular challenge in pre-elimination settings. In these settings transmission is typically sufficiently low and spatially heterogeneous to warrant a need for estimates of malaria risk at sub-district or village level but is also likely to be sufficiently high to render the type of decision support systems appropriate to the final stages of malaria elimination impractical. In such a scenario it is arguably more feasible to strengthen existing passive malaria surveillance systems so that routinely generated case data can provide an effective basis for stratifying malaria risk. This paper explores the utility of routine malaria surveillance data for the stratification of malaria risk in Cambodia, where the target is malaria elimination by 2025. 

Read the full text in Malaria Journal online here.

Wednesday
Oct012014

Spatial and temporal epidemiology of clinical malaria in Cambodia 2004-2013

Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has recently been identified on the Thailand-Cambodia border and more recently in parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. There is concern that if this resistance were to spread, it would severely hamper malaria control and elimination efforts worldwide. Efforts are currently underway to intensify malaria control activities and ultimately eliminate malaria from Cambodia. To support these efforts, it is crucial to have a detailed picture of disease burden and its major determinants over time.

Read the full abstract online in Malaria Journal here. 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Antimalarial resistance: is vivax left behind?

 

Drs Frédéric Ariey & Richard E Paul from Institut Pasteur Paris have written a commentary in The Lancet Infectious Diseases Journal in response to Ric Price et al.’s paper on the global prevalence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax.

Read the full text online here.

Wednesday
Oct012014

Malaria elimination without stigmatization: a note of caution about the use of terminology in elimination settings  

 

This commentary, co-written by Prof Maxine Whittaker from the APMEN joint Secretariat, offers a note of caution about the negative social impact that may be inadvertently generated through malaria elimination activities. In particular, the commentary is concerned with the practice of describing people who remain at risk of malaria in low transmission settings as 'hotpops' or 'reservoirs of infection.'

Read the commentary in Malaria Journal here.

 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China

 

Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013.

Read the article in Malaria Journal here. 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Monitoring Plasmodium vivax chloroquine sensitivity along China-Myanmar border of Yunnan Province, China during 2008–2013

 

Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread of the malaria parasites infecting human hosts. In malaria-eliminating settings, both imported and local malaria predominantly occurs in border areas, and most of them are P. vivax. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first-line drug for P. vivax treatment in China. To understand CQ sensitivity in P. vivax, in vivo monitoring of CQ resistance was conducted along the China-Myanmar border from 2008 to 2013.

Read the article in Malaria Journal here.

Wednesday
Oct012014

The diminishing returns of atovaquone-proguanil for elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: modelling mass drug administration and treatment

 

Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to current efforts to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria which rely heavily on the continuing efficacy of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It has been suggested that ACT should not be used in mass drug administration (MDA) in areas where artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum is prevalent, and that atovaquone-proguanil (A-P) might be a preferable alternative. However, a single point mutation in the cytochrome b gene confers high level resistance to atovaquone, and such mutant parasites arise frequently during treatment making A-P a vulnerable tool for elimination.

Read the abstract in Malaria Journal here.

 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Field Evaluation of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay, RealAmp, for the Diagnosis of Malaria in Thailand and India

 

To eliminate malaria, surveillance for submicroscopic infections is needed. Molecular methods can detect submicroscopic infections but have not hitherto been amenable to implementation in surveillance programs. A portable loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay called RealAmp was assessed in 2 areas of low malaria transmission.

Read the full text in The Journal of Infectious Diseases here 

View/download the related editorial, Point of Care Testing for Malaria Using LAMP, Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification

 

 

Tuesday
Sep162014

Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria and bed net ownership and use in Bhutan, 2013: a country earmarked for malaria elimination


Results from a study published September 4 in Malaria Journal, on bednet ownership and use in Bhutan has reported the country appears on track toward malaria elimination! Among the findings, four sub-districts in Bhutan had very high coverage of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs), while two areas with historically high malaria incidence rates had shown continual decreases in cases reported through passive detection.

Read the full paper online here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

New Burnet Institute research uncovers proteins for effective malaria vaccines

Research from APMEN Partner Institution, Burnet Institute in Melbourne, Australia have uncovered a group of proteins that could form the basis for innovative diagnostics and effective vaccines against malaria. The findings, published in British Medical Journal, revealed several antigen-specific antibodies that were associated with active infection and protective immunity, which may be useful biomarkers to coordinate further research, particularly for P. vivax in the Asia Pacific region. 

Read the Burnet Institute media release here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

Measuring progress in global health

A special issue of Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, the 'Measuring Progress' series; a collection of papers published including Mnzava et al.'s Malaria vector control at a crossroads: public health entomology and the drive to elimination',will be available free online until the end of November 2014.

View the series here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

Understanding drug resistance in malaria parasites: Basic science for public health


CH Sibley has published in Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology  on malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and the ongoing struggle between evolution of resistance to antimalarials by the parasite and public health responses.

Read the abstract here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

Understanding drug resistance in malaria parasites: Basic science for public health


CH Sibley has published in Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology  on malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and the ongoing struggle between evolution of resistance to antimalarials by the parasite and public health responses.

Read the abstract here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

Prioritizing pregnant women in malaria endemic regions for bed nets from clinics


Donors, Ministries of Health, implementing agencies, and other partners should prioritise providing pregnant women in malaria endemic regions with long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) through antenatal care clinics to help prevent malaria and its adverse effects on mother and infant. Jenny Hill, from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, and colleagues from the London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and the Malaria Control and Elimination Program at PATH in Seattle, explain that LLINs are a powerful public health tool to help improve maternal, neonatal, and infant health but that the use of these nets is well below national and international targets. 

Read & download the PLoS Medicine paper here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

ACT KNOW randomised trial for Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia

The study design protocol for a population-based case–control study in the state of Sabah, Malaysia has been published in British Medical Journal. The study will evaluate which factors lead to increased risk of acquiring human P. knowlesi malaria in two adjacent districts in Malaysian Borneo: Kudat and Kota Marudu. Information resulting from this study will assist in guiding public health strategies for malaria in this region and provide valuable human epidemiological data for integration with concurrent studies on the entomology, primatology and land use aspects of P. knowlesi transmission. Full Open Access paper here.

Monday
Aug252014

Characterizing, controlling and eliminating residual malaria transmission 

Kileen G.F. Malaria Journal 2014, 13:330

Abstract:

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) interventions can 
reduce malaria transmission by targeting mosquitoes when they feed upon sleeping humans 
and/or rest inside houses, livestock shelters or other man-made structures. However, many 
malaria vector species can maintain robust transmission, despite high coverage of LLINs/IRS 
containing insecticides to which they are physiologically fully susceptible, because they 
exhibit one or more behaviours that define the biological limits of achievable impact with 
these interventions.

 

Tuesday
Aug192014

Cost analysis of the development and implementation of a spatial decision support system for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

Marston et al. Malaria Journal 2014, 13:325 

Conclusion: This study provides the first cost analysis of an operational surveillance tool used specifically for malaria elimination in the South-West Pacific. It is demonstrated that the costs of such a decision support system are driven by specialized equipment and travel expenses. Such factors should be closely scrutinized in future programme budgets to ensure maximum efficiencies are gained and available resources are allocated effectively.

View/download the Malaria Journal pdf here.

Tuesday
Jul292014

Malaria vector control at crossroads: public health entomology and the drive to elimination

A recent article in Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine by Mnzava et al. makes a crticial point about new opportunities to expand the role of those involved in vector control to perform as public health entomologists and contribute towards malaria elimination.

View/download the free full text article here.

Tuesday
Jul292014

Malaria policy advisory committee to the WHO: conclusions and recommendations of fifth biannual meeting (March 2014)

 

The Malaria Policy Advisory Committee to the World Health Organization (WHO) held its fifth meeting in Geneva, Switzerland from 12 to 14 March 2014. This article provides a summary of the discussions, conclusions and recommendations from that meeting.

View/download the free text article in Malaria Journal here.

 

Monday
Jul282014

Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia 

Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. This study investigates the use of effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment.