Other News and Resources

Thursday
Jul162015

Treatment policy change to dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine contributes to the reduction of adverse maternal and pregnancy outcomes

Conclusions: Introduction of highly effective treatment in pregnancy was associated with a reduction of maternal malaria at delivery and improved neonatal outcomes. Ensuring universal access to arteminisin combination therapy (ACT) in pregnancy in an area of multidrug resistance has potential to impact significantly on maternal and infant health. Read the Malaria Journal paper here.

 

Tuesday
Jun302015

A novel multiple-stage antimalarial agent that inhibits protein synthesis

Abstract: There is an urgent need for new drugs to treat malaria, with broad therapeutic potential and novel modes of action, to widen the scope of treatment and to overcome emerging drug resistance. Here we describe the discovery of DDD107498, a compound with a potent and novel spectrum of antimalarial activity against multiple life-cycle stages of the Plasmodium parasite, with good pharmacokinetic properties and an acceptable safety profile. DDD107498 demonstrates potential to address a variety of clinical needs, including single-dose treatment, transmission blocking and chemoprotection. DDD107498 was developed from a screening programme against blood-stage malaria parasites; its molecular target has been identified as translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2), which is responsible for the GTP-dependent translocation of the ribosome along messenger RNA, and is essential for protein synthesis. This discovery of eEF2 as a viable antimalarial drug target opens up new possibilities for drug discovery.

Read the full article in Nature journal here.

Read the news story, 'New compound has the potential to treat malaria patients in a single dose: Discovery of novel antimalarial compound published in Nature,' on MMV website.

View/download the MMV press release of 17 June, 2015 here.

Monday
Jun292015

Malaria mapping: understanding the global endemicity of falciparum and vivax malaria

Abstract: The mapping of malaria risk has a history stretching back over 100 years. The last decade, however, has seen dramatic progress in the scope, rigour and sophistication of malaria mapping such that its global distribution is now probably better understood than any other infectious disease. In this minireview we consider the main factors that have facilitated the recent proliferation of malaria risk mapping efforts and describe the most prominent global-scale endemicity mapping endeavours of recent years. We describe the diversification of malaria mapping to span a wide range of related metrics of biological and public health importance and consider prospects for the future of the science including its key role in supporting elimination efforts.

Read the full paper online in BioMedCentral Medicine here.

This article is part of the BMC Medicine series, Combating malaria: research, prevention and treatment, guest edited by James Beeson, The Burnet Institute of Medical Research and Public Health, Australia. THe series aims to highlight recent progress in all areas of malaria research, including vaccine development, investigations into new antimalarial agents, vector control and disease epidemiology. If you have any research you would like us to consider for inclusion in this article collection, please email bmcmedicineeditorial@biomedcentral.com.

 

Friday
Jun262015

Re-imaging malaria in the Philippines: how photovoice can help to re-imagine malaria

Conclusion: Photovoice is an effective method for re-imaging malaria. It allowed participants to depict anddescribe multiple versions of malaria and the practices that they engage in in context. Photovoice also had a potentially transformative effect. It acted as a means for participants and researchers to: visually depict everyday practices; collectively gain a deeper understanding of this doing; and then seek ways in which to make changes in line with this joint understanding.

Read the full Malaria Journal article here.

Friday
Jun262015

The evidence for improving housing to reduce malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 Conclusions: Despite low quality evidence, the direction and consistency of effects indicate that housing is an important risk factor for malaria. Future research should evaluate the protective effect of specific house features and incremental housing improvements associated with socio-economic development.

 Read the full paper in Malaria Journal here.

Thursday
Jun252015

Malaria and the mobile and migrant population in Cambodia: a population movement framework to inform strategies for malaria control and elimination

Conclusion: This paper describes the process of defining MMPs in Cambodia, identifying the different activities and related risks to appropriately target and tailor interventions to the highest risk groups. The framework has been used to develop more targeted behaviour change and outreach interventions for MMPs in Cambodia and its utility and effectiveness will be evaluated as part of those interventions.

 

Read the article in Malaria Journal here.

 

Thursday
Jun252015

Malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, from 2005 to 2014

Abstract: To summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Zhejiang Province, China, we collected data on malaria from the Chinese Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NDRS) and analyzed them. A total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in Zhejiang Province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. Notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. The number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, and then decreased from 2007 to 2011. There were no indigenous cases from 2012 to 2014. Of all cases, 68% of cases contracted

Plasmodium vivax, 27% of cases contracted P. falciparum, and two cases contracted P. malariae. About 88% of malaria cases during 2005–2011 occurred yearly between May and October, but the number of malaria cases in different months during 2012–2014 was similar. The median age was 33 years, and 1,892 cases occurred in persons aged 20–50 years. The proportion of businessmen increased and the proportion of migrant laborers decreased in recent years. The median time from illness onset to confirmation of malaria cases was 5 days and it decreased from 2005 to 2014. Some epidemiological characteristics of malaria have changed, and businessmen are the emphases to surveillance in every month.

Read the paper in The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene here.

Thursday
Jun252015

Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

Abstract: In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border.

Read the paper in Infection, Genetics and Evolution journal here.

Thursday
Jun252015

Establishment of the Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network: updating the research agenda

Abstract: The potential use of ivermectin as an additional vector control tool is receiving increased attention from the malaria elimination community, driven by the increased importance of outdoor/residual malaria transmission and the threat of insecticide resistance where vector tools have been scaled-up. This report summarizes the emerging evidence presented at a side meeting on “Ivermectin for malaria elimination: current status and future directions” at the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in New Orleans on November 4, 2014. One outcome was the creation of the “Ivermectin Research for Malaria Elimination Network” whose main goal is to establish a common research agenda to generate the evidence base on whether ivermectin-based strategies should be added to the emerging arsenal to interrupt malaria transmission.

View/download the pdf from Malaria Journal here.

 

Thursday
Jun252015

A comprehensive assessment of the malaria microscopy system of Aceh, Indonesia, in preparation for malaria elimination

Conclusions: The study highlights the importance of careful assessment of diagnostic capacity when embarking upon a large-scale malaria elimination programme. Aceh’s laboratories have minimal infrastructure with nearly all microscopists still in training. On the positive side, a large workforce of microscopists has been assigned to laboratories with the needed equipment. Aceh will need to embark on a large-scale comprehensive quality assurance scheme if it is to achieve malaria elimination. 

Read the article in Malaria Journal here.

 

Tuesday
Jun092015

High Rates of Asymptomatic, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium vivax Infection and Disappearing Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in an Area of Low Transmission in Solomon Islands

Conclusions: P. vivax infection remains endemic in Ngella, with the majority of cases afebrile and below the detection limit of light microscopy. P. falciparum has nearly disappeared, but the risk of re-introductions and outbreaks due to travel to nearby islands with higher malaria endemicity remains. View the pdf from PLOS NTDS here.

Tuesday
Jun092015

Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

Abstract (excerpt): Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Read the full article in AJTMH here. 

Tuesday
Jun092015

Effective program management: A Cornerstone of Malaria Elimination


Abstract (excerpt): Effective program management is essential for successful elimination of malaria. In this perspective article, evidence surrounding malaria program management is reviewed by management science and malaria experts through a literature search of published and unpublished gray documents and key informant interviews. Program management in a malaria elimination setting differs from that in a malaria control setting in a number of ways, although knowledge and understanding of these distinctions are lacking. Several core features of successful health program management are critical to achieve elimination, including effective leadership and supervision at all levels, sustained political and financial commitment, reliable supply and control of physical resources, effective management of data and information, appropriate incentives, and consistent accountability.Read the full article in AJTMH here.

Tuesday
Jun092015

Review of Mass Drug Administration for Malaria and Its Operational Challenges


Abstract (excerpt): Mass drug administration (MDA) was a component of many malaria programs during the eradication era, but later was seldomly deployed due to concerns regarding efficacy and feasibility, and fear of accelerating drug resistance. Recently, however, there has been renewed interest in the role of MDA as an elimination tool. Following a 2013 Cochrane Review that focused on the quantitative effects of malaria MDA, this study conducted a systematic, qualitative review of published, unpublished, and gray literature documenting past MDA experiences. Read the full article in AJTMH here.

Tuesday
Jun092015

Tackling Imported Malaria: An Elimination Endgame

Abstract (excerpt): As countries move toward malaria elimination, imported infections become increasingly significant as they often represent the majority of cases, can sustain transmission, cause resurgences, and lead to mortality. Here we review and critique current methods to prevent malaria importation in countries pursuing elimination and explore methods applied in other transmission settings and to other diseases that could be transferred to support malaria elimination. Read the full article in AJTMH here.

Monday
May182015

A Repeat Random Survey of the Prevalence of Falsified and Substandard Antimalarials in the Lao PDR: A Change for the Better

Abstract: In 2003, a stratified random sample survey was conducted in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) to study the availability and quality of antimalarials in the private sector. In 2012, this survey was repeated to allow a statistically valid analysis of change through time. The counterfeit detection device 3 (CD-3) was used to assess packaging quality in the field. The availability of oral artesunate monotherapies had significantly decreased from 22.9% (22) of 96 outlets in southern Laos in 2003 to 4.8% (7) of 144 outlets in 2012 (P < 0.0001). All the samples collected in 2012 survey contained the correct active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in contrast to the 21 (84%) falsified artesunate samples found in the 2003 survey. Although none of the medicines found in 2012 survey had evidence for falsification, 25.4% (37) of the samples were outside the 90–110% pharmacopeial limits of the label claim, suggesting that they were substandard or degraded. Results obtained from this survey show that patients are still exposed to poorly manufactured drugs or to ineffective medicines such as chloroquine. The quality of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) used in Laos needs to be monitored; since falsified ACTs would have devastating consequences in public healthRead the full paper in AJMTH here.

Monday
May182015

Spatio-temporal analysis of malaria vectors in national malaria surveillance sites in China

Abstract: To reveal the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors in the national malaria surveillance sites from 2005 to 2010 and provide reference for the current National Malaria Elimination Programme (NMEP) in China.

Conclusion: This study first described the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria vectors based on the nationwide surveillance during 2005–2010, which served as a baseline for the ongoing national malaria elimination program.

Read the full paper in Parasites and Vectors here.

 

Monday
May182015

Malaria control in Nepal 1963-2012: challenges on the path towards elimination

Excerpt:

The magnitudes of declines found in malaria indicators are in line with those reported from similar studies in neighbouring countries: Bhutan, India and China [39,69-71]. Although attempt is made to include completely reported malaria indicator data, the findings of this study should be interpreted with a caution as it is entirely dependent on retrospective surveillance data. These results may represent actual time trends in malaria incidence at health facilities which may not represent trends of true malaria incidence at the population level. However, this study provides important information about past milestones, the present malaria situation and challenges on the path towards malaria elimination in Nepal. 

Read the full script from Malaria Journal here.

Monday
Apr202015

A molecular mechanism of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

Researhers from the University of Notre Dame have published in Nature journal new findings on artemisinin resistance and proportional P.falciparum parasite gene mutations. They study used clinical parasites from Cambodia. In an article by Science Daily, the authors say they are working with partners like Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) to find new drugs to both disrupt mutations, and kill the parasite. Read the Science Daily article here. 

View/download the Nature journal paper here.

Monday
Apr202015

Towards subsidized malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Lessons from global subsidy of ACTs: a review

Abstract (excerpt): Among the interventions recently proposed, a subsidy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the private sector has been recommended by governments and international donors to cope with over-treatment with ACTs and to delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-paid RDTs, we should build on the lessons we learned from almost 10 years of the global subsidy of ACTs in malaria-endemic countries. Read the full text in Health Policy and Planning Journal here.

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Bhutan
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