Other News and Resources

Monday
Dec152014

Operational research on malaria control and elimination: a review of projects published between 2008 and 2013

Conclusions: A literature review for operational research on malaria control and elimination was conducted using the term 'malaria' and the definition of operational research (OR). A total of 15 886 articles related to malaria were searched between January 2008 and June 2013. These OR projects had been carried out in 83 different countries. Most OR studies (77%) were implemented in Africa south of the Sahara. Only 5 (1%) of the OR studies were implemented in countries in the pre-elimination or elimination phase. With regards to the topic under investigation, the largest percentage of papers was related to vector control (25%), followed by epidemiology/transmission (16.5%) and treatment (16.3%). Only 19 (3.8%) of the OR projects were related to malaria surveillance. Strengthening the capacity of NMCPs to conduct operational research and publish its findings, and improving linkages between NMCPs and research institutes may aid progress towards malaria elimination and eventual eradication world-wide.

View/download the Malaria Journal paper here.

Monday
Dec152014

Artemisinin resistance – modelling the potential human and economic costs

Conclusion: Artemisinin combination therapy is recommended as first-line treatment for falciparum malaria across the endemic world and is increasingly relied upon for treating vivax malaria where chloroquine is failing. This paper estimates "ball park" figures for the magnitude of the health and economic threat posed by artemisinin resistance add weight to the call for urgent action to detect the emergence of resistance as early as possible and contain its spread from known locations in the Mekong region to elsewhere in the endemic world.
Thursday
Nov272014

Determinants of the use of insecticide-treated bed nets on islands of pre- and post-malaria elimination: an application of the health belief model in Vanuatu

Conclusion: The results on Ambae highlight the challenges of motivating communities to engage in
elimination efforts when transmission continues to occur, while the results from Aneityum
suggest the possibility of continued compliance to malaria elimination efforts given the threat
of resurgence. Where a high degree of community engagement is possible, malaria
elimination programmes may prove successful. 
Tuesday
Nov182014

Culminating anti-malaria efforts at long lasting insecticidal net?

Conclusions: Specific criteria for determining the serviceable life and guidelines on the safe washing and disposal of LLINs need to be developed, kept well-informed and closely monitored. Malaria case management, environment management and community awareness to reduce the misuse of LLINs are crucial. Focused research on developing effective anti-malarial drugs, vaccines and new insecticides to reduce resistance is imperative to tackle malaria in the future.

View/Download the Journal of Infection and Public Health here.

Monday
Nov172014

Changing epidemiology of malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: increasing incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi

Conclusions: Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi in Sabah are increasing, with this trend likely reflecting a true increase in incidence of P. knowlesi and presenting a major threat to malaria control and elimination in Malaysia.With the decline of P. falciparum and P. vivax, control programmes need to incorporate measures to protect againstP. knowlesi, with further research required to determine effective interventions.

View/download the Malaria Journal pdf here (3,404KB)

 

Monday
Nov102014

Fighting the good fight: the role of militaries in malaria elimination in Southeast Asia

Intro: Despite significant progress in malaria control in the Greater Mekong Subregion, malaria is still endemic, with more than 30 million people infected annually. Important gaps remain in case management, service delivery, prevention, and vector control, particularly in hard-to-reach mobile populations. Rapidly evolving drug resistance has created a new urgency to move aggressively toward malaria elimination. However, no clear and cost-effective strategy has been identified. Although GMS militaries are under-recognized as a malaria transmission reservoir, they are an important focal point for elimination activities, given their high mobility, frequent malaria exposure, and potential for asymptomatic carriage. At the same time, military organization capacity and proximity to other mobile populations could facilitate elimination efforts if relevant political barrier could be overcome. Here, we review considerations for military involvement in regional malaria elimination efforts.

Read the abstract online in Trends in Parasitology here 

Tuesday
Nov042014

The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2004-2012: from intensified control to elimination

This study demonstrated that malaria has decreased dramatically in the last five years, especially since the Chinese government launched a malaria elimination programme in 2010, and areas with reported falciparum malaria cases have expanded over recent years. These findings suggest that elimination efforts should be improved to meet these changes, so as to achieve the nationwide malaria elimination goal in China in 2020.

Read the Malaria Journal article here.

Thursday
Oct022014

Novel approaches to risk stratification to support malaria elimination: an example from Cambodia  

Accurate malaria stratification is essential for effective targeting of interventions but represents a particular challenge in pre-elimination settings. In these settings transmission is typically sufficiently low and spatially heterogeneous to warrant a need for estimates of malaria risk at sub-district or village level but is also likely to be sufficiently high to render the type of decision support systems appropriate to the final stages of malaria elimination impractical. In such a scenario it is arguably more feasible to strengthen existing passive malaria surveillance systems so that routinely generated case data can provide an effective basis for stratifying malaria risk. This paper explores the utility of routine malaria surveillance data for the stratification of malaria risk in Cambodia, where the target is malaria elimination by 2025. 

Read the full text in Malaria Journal online here.

Wednesday
Oct012014

Spatial and temporal epidemiology of clinical malaria in Cambodia 2004-2013

Artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has recently been identified on the Thailand-Cambodia border and more recently in parts of Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. There is concern that if this resistance were to spread, it would severely hamper malaria control and elimination efforts worldwide. Efforts are currently underway to intensify malaria control activities and ultimately eliminate malaria from Cambodia. To support these efforts, it is crucial to have a detailed picture of disease burden and its major determinants over time.

Read the full abstract online in Malaria Journal here. 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Antimalarial resistance: is vivax left behind?

 

Drs Frédéric Ariey & Richard E Paul from Institut Pasteur Paris have written a commentary in The Lancet Infectious Diseases Journal in response to Ric Price et al.’s paper on the global prevalence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax.

Read the full text online here.

Wednesday
Oct012014

Malaria elimination without stigmatization: a note of caution about the use of terminology in elimination settings  

 

This commentary, co-written by Prof Maxine Whittaker from the APMEN joint Secretariat, offers a note of caution about the negative social impact that may be inadvertently generated through malaria elimination activities. In particular, the commentary is concerned with the practice of describing people who remain at risk of malaria in low transmission settings as 'hotpops' or 'reservoirs of infection.'

Read the commentary in Malaria Journal here.

 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China

 

Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013.

Read the article in Malaria Journal here. 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Monitoring Plasmodium vivax chloroquine sensitivity along China-Myanmar border of Yunnan Province, China during 2008–2013

 

Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread of the malaria parasites infecting human hosts. In malaria-eliminating settings, both imported and local malaria predominantly occurs in border areas, and most of them are P. vivax. Chloroquine (CQ) is the first-line drug for P. vivax treatment in China. To understand CQ sensitivity in P. vivax, in vivo monitoring of CQ resistance was conducted along the China-Myanmar border from 2008 to 2013.

Read the article in Malaria Journal here.

Wednesday
Oct012014

The diminishing returns of atovaquone-proguanil for elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: modelling mass drug administration and treatment

 

Artemisinin resistance is a major threat to current efforts to eliminate Plasmodium falciparum malaria which rely heavily on the continuing efficacy of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It has been suggested that ACT should not be used in mass drug administration (MDA) in areas where artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum is prevalent, and that atovaquone-proguanil (A-P) might be a preferable alternative. However, a single point mutation in the cytochrome b gene confers high level resistance to atovaquone, and such mutant parasites arise frequently during treatment making A-P a vulnerable tool for elimination.

Read the abstract in Malaria Journal here.

 

Wednesday
Oct012014

Field Evaluation of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay, RealAmp, for the Diagnosis of Malaria in Thailand and India

 

To eliminate malaria, surveillance for submicroscopic infections is needed. Molecular methods can detect submicroscopic infections but have not hitherto been amenable to implementation in surveillance programs. A portable loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay called RealAmp was assessed in 2 areas of low malaria transmission.

Read the full text in The Journal of Infectious Diseases here 

View/download the related editorial, Point of Care Testing for Malaria Using LAMP, Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification

 

 

Tuesday
Sep162014

Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria and bed net ownership and use in Bhutan, 2013: a country earmarked for malaria elimination


Results from a study published September 4 in Malaria Journal, on bednet ownership and use in Bhutan has reported the country appears on track toward malaria elimination! Among the findings, four sub-districts in Bhutan had very high coverage of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs), while two areas with historically high malaria incidence rates had shown continual decreases in cases reported through passive detection.

Read the full paper online here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

New Burnet Institute research uncovers proteins for effective malaria vaccines

Research from APMEN Partner Institution, Burnet Institute in Melbourne, Australia have uncovered a group of proteins that could form the basis for innovative diagnostics and effective vaccines against malaria. The findings, published in British Medical Journal, revealed several antigen-specific antibodies that were associated with active infection and protective immunity, which may be useful biomarkers to coordinate further research, particularly for P. vivax in the Asia Pacific region. 

Read the Burnet Institute media release here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

Measuring progress in global health

A special issue of Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene, the 'Measuring Progress' series; a collection of papers published including Mnzava et al.'s Malaria vector control at a crossroads: public health entomology and the drive to elimination',will be available free online until the end of November 2014.

View the series here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

Understanding drug resistance in malaria parasites: Basic science for public health


CH Sibley has published in Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology  on malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and the ongoing struggle between evolution of resistance to antimalarials by the parasite and public health responses.

Read the abstract here.

Tuesday
Sep162014

Understanding drug resistance in malaria parasites: Basic science for public health


CH Sibley has published in Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology  on malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and the ongoing struggle between evolution of resistance to antimalarials by the parasite and public health responses.

Read the abstract here.

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