Vietnam has been progressing toward malaria elimination since the early 1990s, due to sustained vector control and improved diagnostics, treatment and health education. As a result, malaria morbidity and mortality decreased significantly between 2000 and 2015, with a 93% decline in malaria cases (from 274,910 down to 19,252 cases) and a 98% decline in malaria deaths (from 142 down to 3 deaths). Transmission is concentrated in the central and southern provinces of Tay Nguyen highlands, with seasonal peaks between May to June and October to November.
All five Plasmodium species have been identified in the country; P. falciparum accounts for 64% of all reported cases, as well most asymptomatic malaria infections. Malaria transmission is primarily attributed to three major vector species: Anopheles minimus, An. dirus, and An. epiroticus, though more than twenty Anopheles species have been detected in Vietnam. Malaria continues to pose a threat to communities inhabiting remote forest, forest-fringe, and mountainous regions, and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities, forest workers, and migrants in cross-border areas. Challenges to elimination include undetected malaria parasites in central Vietnam, antimalarial drug resistance, and imported cases.
- 74% of the total population are at risk (total population: 92.4 million)
- 19,252 cases of malaria and 3 deaths in 2015
- 0.21 Annual Parasite Index (cases/1,000 population/year)
- Dominant malaria species: P. falciparum (64%)
- Elimination goal: zero indigenous cases and zero deaths by 2030