The Solomon Islands has experienced a 73% decrease in reported malaria cases between 2000 and 2014, from 68,107 cases to 18,404 cases. Infections from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax occur throughout the year, with two transmission peaks in February/March and September/October. There is marked variation in the distribution of cases among the 10 provinces, which are targeted through spatially progressive elimination approach.
The main malaria vector is Anopheles farauti and secondary vectors include An. punctulatus and An. koliensis. Two of these vectors (An. punctulatus and An. koliensis) were nearly eliminated by the malaria eradication program of the 1970s, are are now uncommon with a patchy distribution across the nation. However, An. farauti has maintained effective transmission by changing its biting behaviour to early evening, outdoor biting. Controlling this vector presents a significant challenge to the NMCP as it works towards elimination.
- 99% of the total population at risk (total population: 0.6 million)
- 18,404 confirmed cases of malaria and 23 deaths in 2014
- 32.2 Annual Parasite Index (cases/1,000 population/year)
- Dominant malaria species: P. falciparum (54%)
- Elimination goal: zero indigenous cases and zero deaths by 2030