Indonesia, a large archipelago, is the fourth most populous country in the world. Indonesia has made steady advances in malaria surveillance and control in the last decade, with several districts meeting the WHO criteria for elimination. Between 2004 and 2014, Indonesia achieved a 17% and 87% overall decrease in malaria cases and deaths, respectively. Malaria transmission is geographically asymmetrical, and occurs year-round due to the diversity of vectors, geographies, and environments. Eighty percent of reported cases between 2005 and 2014 were found in the eastern part of the nation, particularly Papua, Western Papua, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, and North Maluku.
While 62% of infections are due to P. falciparum, all five species of Plasmodium parasites have been identified in the Indonesian archipelago. P. falciparum and P. vivax mixed infections are very common, while P. malariae, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi infections are rare. Dominant malaria vectors include Anopheles sundaicus, An. balabacenis, An. maculatus, An. farauti, and An. subpictus, though over twenty anopheline vector species are responsible for malaria transmission in Indonesia.
- 26% population living in areas of active transmission (total population: 254.5 million)
- 252,027 total cases of malaria and 64 deaths in 2014
- 0.99 Annual parasite incidence (cases/1,000 population at risk/year)
- Dominant malaria species: P. falciparum
- Elimination goal: zero indigenous cases and zero deaths by 2030